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    當前位置:中國古典文學名著(www.shjiulongnanzi.com)_古代小說下載_電子書txt在線閱讀 > 詩經詞曲小說 > 周禮最新章節

    周禮 - 冬官考工記第六 - 中國古典文學

    周禮 | 作者:周公旦 | 更新時間:2016-11-25 19:17:45
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    國有六職,百工與居一焉。或坐而論道,或作而行之,或審曲面執,以飭五材,以辨民器,或通四方之珍異以資之,或飭力以長地財,或治絲麻以成之。坐而論道,謂之王公;作而行之,謂之士大夫;審曲面執,以飭五材,以辨民器,謂之百工;通四方之珍異以資之,謂之商旅;飭力以長地財,謂之農夫;治絲麻以成之,謂之婦功。粵無鏄,燕無函,秦無廬,胡無弓車。粵之無鏄也,非無廬也,夫人而能為廬也;燕之無函也,非無函也,夫人而能為函也;秦之無廬也,非無廬也,夫人而能為廬也;胡之無弓車也,非無弓車也,夫人而能為弓車也。知得創物,巧者述之守之,世謂之工。百工之事,皆圣人之作也。爍金以為刃,凝土以為器,作車以行陸,作舟行水,此皆圣人之所作也。天有時,地有氣,材有美,工有巧,合此四者,然后可以為良。材美工巧,然而不良,則不時,不得地氣也。橘窬淮而北為枳,瞿?鵒不逾濟,貉逾汶則死,此地氣然也;鄭之刀,宋之斤,魯之削,吳粵之劍,遷乎其地而弗能為良,地氣然也。燕之角,荊之干,妢胡之笴,吳粵之金錫,此材之美者也。天有時以生,有時以殺;草木有時以生,有時以死,石有時以泐,水有時以凝,有時以澤,此天時也。凡攻木之工七,攻金之工六,攻皮之工五,設色之工五,刮摩之工五,搏埴之工二。攻木之工:輪、輿、弓、廬、匠、車、梓;攻金這工:筑、冶、鳧、?、段、桃;攻皮之工:函、鮑、韗、韋、裘;設色之工:畫、繢、鍾、筐、?荒;刮摩之工:玉、ω、雕、矢、磬;搏埴之工:陶、瓬。有虞氏上陶,夏后氏上匠,殷人上梓,周人上輿。故一器而工聚焉者,車為多。車有六等之數:車軫四尺,謂之一等;戈柲六尺有六寸,即建而迤,崇于軫四尺,謂之二等;人長八尺,崇于戈四尺,謂之三等;殳長尋有四尺,崇于人四尺,謂之四等;車戟常,崇于殳四尺,謂之五等;酋矛常有四尺,崇於戟四尺,謂之六等。車謂之六等之數;凡察車之道,必自載于地者始也,是故察車自輪始。凡察車之道,欲其樸屬而微至,不樸屬。無以為完久也,不微至。無以為戚速也。輪已崇,則人不能登也,輪已庳,則於馬終古登阤也。故兵車之輪六尺有六寸,田車之輪六尺有三寸,乘車之輪六尺有六寸,六尺有六寸之輪,軹崇三尺有三寸也,加軫與■焉,四尺也。人長八尺,登下以為節。

    輪人為輪,斬三材必以其時。三材既具,巧者和之。轂也者,以為利轉也。輻也者,以為直指也。牙也者,以為固抱也。輪敝,三材不失職,謂之完。望而眡其輪,欲其幎爾而下迤也。進而眡之,欲其微至也。無所取之,取諸圜也。望其輻,欲其揱爾而纖也。進而眡之,欲其肉稱也。無所取之,取諸易直也。望其轂,欲其眼也,進而眡之,欲其幬之廉也。無所取之,取諸急也。眡其綆,欲其蚤之正也,察其菑蚤不齲,則輪雖敝不匡。凡斬轂之道,必矩其陰陽。陽也者,稹理而堅;陰也者,疏理而柔。是故以火養其陰,而齊諸其陽,則轂雖敝不蒿?。轂小而長則柞,大而短則摯。是故六分其輪崇,以其一為之牙圍,參分其牙圍,而漆其二。槨其漆內而中詘之。以為之轂長,以其長為之圍,以其圍之阝力捎其藪。五分其轂之長,去一以為賢,去三以為軹。容轂必直,陳篆必正,施膠必厚,施筋必數,幬必負干。既摩,革色青白,謂之轂之善。參分其轂長,二在外,一在內,以置其幅。凡輻,量其鑿深以為輻廣。輻廣而鑿淺,則是以大扤,雖有良工,莫之能固。鑿深而輻小,則是固有余,而強不足也,故竑其輻廣,以為之弱,則雖有重任,轂不折。參分其輻之長而殺其一,則雖有深泥,亦弗之溓也。參分其股圍,去一以為?圍,揉輻必齊,平沈必均,直以指牙,牙得,則無槷而固,不得,則有槷必足見也。六尺有六寸之輪,綆參分寸之二,謂之輪之固。凡為輪,行澤者欲杼,行山者欲侔。杼以行澤,則是刀以割涂也,是故涂不附。侔以行山,則是搏以行石也,是故輪雖敝不甐于鑿。凡揉牙,外不廉而內不挫,旁不腫,謂之用火之善。是故規之以眡其圜也,萭之以眡其匡也。縣之以眡其幅之直也,水之以眡其平沈之均也,量其藪以黍,以眡其同也,權之以眡其輕重之侔也。故可規、可萭、可水、可縣、可量、可權也,謂之國工。

    輪人為蓋,達常圍三雨,桯圍倍之,六寸。信其桯圍以為部廣,部廣六寸。部長二尺,桯長倍之,四尺者二。十分寸之一,謂之枚,部尊一枚,弓鑿廣四枚,鑿上二枚,鑿下四枚,鑿深二寸有半,下直二枚,鑿端一枚。弓長六尺謂之庇軹,五尺謂之庇輪,四尺謂之庇軫,參分弓長而揉其一,參分其股圍,去一以為蚤圍。參分弓長,以其一為之尊,上欲尊而宇欲卑,上尊而宇卑,則吐水,疾而霤遠。蓋已崇,則難為門也,蓋也卑,是蔽目也。是故蓋崇十尺,良蓋弗冒弗纮,殷畝而馳,不隊,謂之國工。

    輿人為車,輪崇、車廣、衡長參,如一,謂之參稱。參分車廣,去一以為隧。參分其隧,一在前,二在后,在揉其式。以其廣之半為之式崇,以其隧之半為之較崇。六分其廣,以一為之軫圍。參分軫圍,去一以為式圍。參分式圍,去一以為較圍。參分較圍,去一以為軹圍。參分軹圍,去一以為轛圍。圜者中規,方者中矩,立者中縣,衡者中水,直者如生焉,繼者如附焉。凡居材,大與小無并,大倚小則摧,引之則絕,棧車欲弇,飾車欲侈。

    辀人為辀。辀有三度,軸有三理。國馬之辀,深四尺有七寸,田馬之辀深四尺,駑馬之辀,深三尺有三寸。軸有三理:一者,以為■也;二者,以為久也;三者,以為利也。軓前十尺,而策半之。凡任木、任正者,十分其辀之長,以其一為之圍。衡任者,五分其長,以其一為之圍。小于度,謂之無任。五分其軫間,以其一為之軸圍。十分其辀之長,以其一為之當兔之圍。參分其兔圍,去一以為頸圍。五分其頸圍,去一以為踵圍。凡揉辀,欲其孫而無弧深。今夫大車之轅摯,其登又難,既克其登,其覆車也必易。此無故,唯轅直且無橈也。是故大車,平地既節軒摯之任,及其登阝也,不伏其轅,必縊其牛。此無故,唯轅直且無橈也。故登阤者,倍任者也,猶能以登,及其下阤也。不援其邸,必緧其牛后。此無故,唯轅直且無橈也,是故辀欲頎典,辀深則折,淺則負。辀注則利準,利準則久,和則安。辀欲百無折,經而無絕,進則與馬謀,退則與人謀,終目馳騁,左不楗行數千里馬不契需,終歲御,衣衽不敝。此唯辀之和也。勸登馬力,馬力既竭,辀猶能一取焉,良辀環灂,自伏兔不至軓,七寸,軓中有灂,謂之國辀。軫之方也,以象地也;蓋之圜也,以象天也;輪輻三十,以象日月也;蓋弓二十有八,以象星也;龍旂九斿,以象大火也;鳥旟七斿;以象鶉火也;熊旗六斿,以象伐也;龜蛇四斿,以象營室也;弧旌枉矢,以象弧也。

    攻金之工,筑氏執下齊,治氏執上齊,鳧氏為聲,?氏為量,段氏為鏄器,桃氏為刃。金有六齊:六分其金而錫居一,謂之種鼎之齊;五分其金而錫居一,謂之斧斤之齊;四分其金而錫居一,謂之戈戟之齊參分其金而錫居一,謂之大刃之齊;五分其金而錫居二,謂之削殺矢之齊金錫半,謂之鑒燧之齊。

    筑氏為削,長尺博寸,合六而成規。欲新而無窮,敝盡而無惡。

    冶氏為殺矢,刃長寸圍寸,鋌十之,重三垸。戈廣二寸,內倍之,胡三之,援四之,已倨則不入,已句則不決。長內則折前,短內則不疾,是故倨句外博,重三鋝。戟廣寸有半寸,內三之,胡四之,援五之,倨句中矩,與刺重三鋝。

    桃氏為劍,臘廣二寸有半寸,兩従半之。以其臘廣為之莖圍,長倍之,中其莖,設其后。參分其臘廣,去一以為首廣,而圍之。身長五其莖長,重九鋝,謂之上制,上士服之。身長四其莖長,重七鋝,謂之中制,中士服之。身長三其莖長,重五鋝,謂之下制,下士服之。

    鳧氏為鐘,兩欒謂之銑,銑間謂之于,于上謂之鼓,鼓上謂之鉦,鉦上謂之舞,舞上謂之甬,甬上謂之衡,鐘縣謂之旋,旋蟲謂之干,鐘帶謂之篆,篆間謂之枚,枚謂之景,于上之攠謂之隧。十分其銑,去二以為鉦。以其鉦為之銑間,去二分以為之鼓間。以其鼓間為之舞修,去二分以為舞廣。以其鉦之長為之甬長,以其甬長為之圍。參分其圍,去一以為衡圍。參分其甬長,二在上,一在下,以設其旋。薄厚之所震動,清濁之所由出,侈弇之所由興,有說。鐘已厚則石,已薄則播,侈則柞,弇則郁,長甬則震。是故大鐘十分其鼓間,以其一為之厚;小鐘十分其鉦間,以其一為之厚。鐘大而短,則其聲疾而短聞;鐘小而長,則其聲舒而遠聞。為遂,六分其厚,以其一為之深,而圜之。

    ?氏為量,改煎金、錫則不秅,不秅然后權之,權之然后準之,準之然后量之。量之以為鬴,深尺,內方尺而圜其外,其實一鬴,其臂一寸,其實一豆;其耳三寸。其實一升,重一鈞,其聲中黃鐘之宮,概而不悅。其銘曰:“時文思索,允臻其極,嘉量既成,以觀四國,永啟厥后,茲器維則。”凡鑄金之狀;金與錫,黑濁之氣竭,黃白次之,黃白之氣竭,青白次之。青白之氣竭,青氣次之,然后可鑄也。

    段氏闕。

    函人為甲,犀甲七屬,兕甲六屬,合甲五屬。犀甲壽百年,兕甲壽二百年,合甲壽三百年。凡為甲,必先為容,然后制革。權其上旅與其下旅,而重若一,以其長為之圍。凡甲,鍛不摯則不堅,已敝則橈。凡察革之道,眡其鉆空,欲其豐也;眡其里,欲其易也;眡其朕,欲其直也,櫜之欲其約也;舉而眡之,欲其豐也;衣之,欲其無齘也。眡其鉆空而惌,則革堅也;眡其里而易,則材更也;眡其朕而直,則制善也。櫜之而約,則周也;舉之而豐;則明也;衣之無齘,則變也。

    鮑人之事,望而眡之,欲其荼白也;進而握之,欲其柔而滑也;卷而摶之,欲其無迆也;眡其著,欲其淺也;察其線,欲其藏也。革欲其荼白而疾,汗之則堅,欲其柔滑而腛,脂之則需,引而信之。欲其直也,信之而直,則取材正也。信之而枉,則是一方緩一方急也。若茍一方緩一方急,則及其用之也,必自其急者先裂。若茍自急者先裂,則是以博為帴也。卷而摶之而不迆,則厚薄序也。眡其著而淺,則革信也。察其線而藏,則雖敝不甐。

    韗人為皋陶,長六尺有六寸,左右端廣六寸,中尺,厚三寸,穹者三之一,上三正。鼓長八尺,鼓四尺,中圍加三之一,謂之。為皋鼓,長尋有四尺,鼓四尺,倨句磬折。凡冒鼓;必以啟蟄之日,良鼓瑕如積環。鼓大而短,則其聲疾而短聞;鼓小而長,則其聲舒而遠聞。

    韋氏闕。

    裘氏闕。

    畫繢之事,雜五色。東方謂之青,南方謂之赤,西方謂之白,北方謂之黑,天謂之玄,地謂之黃。青與白相次也,赤與黑相次也,玄與黃相次也。青與赤謂之文,赤與白謂之章,白與黑謂之黼,黑與青謂之黼,五采,備謂之繡。土以黃,其象方天時變。火以圜,山以章,水以龍,鳥獸蛇。雜四時五色之位以章之,謂之巧。凡畫繢之事后素功。

    鐘氏染羽,以朱湛、丹秫,三月而熾之,淳而漬之。三入為纁,五入為緅,七入為緇。

    筐人闕。

    ?荒氏湅絲,以涚水漚其絲七日,去地尺暴之。晝暴諸日,夜宿諸井。七日七夜,是謂水湅。湅帛,以欄為灰,渥淳其帛,實諸澤器,淫之以蜃,清其灰而盝之,而揮之,而沃之,而盝之,而涂之,而宿之。明日,沃而盝之,晝暴諸日,夜宿諸井。七日七夜,是謂水湅。

    玉人之事,鎮圭尺有二寸,天子守之;命圭九寸,謂之桓圭,公守之;命圭七寸,謂之信圭,侯守之;命圭七寸,謂之躬圭,伯守之。天子執冒四寸,以朝諸侯。天子用全,上公用龍,侯用瓚,伯用將,繼子男執皮帛。天子圭中必,四圭尺有二寸,以祀天;大圭長三尺,杼上終葵首,天子服之;土圭尺有五寸,以致日、以土地;祼圭尺有二寸,有瓚,以祀廟;琬圭九寸而繅,以象德;琰圭九寸,判規,以除慝,以易行;璧羨度尺,好三寸,以為度;圭璧五寸,以祀日月星辰;璧琮九寸,諸侯以享天子;谷圭七寸,天子以聘女;大璋中璋九寸,邊璋七寸,射四寸,厚寸,黃金勺,青金外,朱中,鼻寸,衡四寸,有繅,天子以巡守。宗祝以前馬,大璋亦如之,諸侯以聘女。瑑圭璋八寸。璧琮八寸,以覜聘。牙璋中璋七寸,射二寸,厚寸,以起軍旅,以治兵守。駔琮五寸,宗后以為權。大琮十有二寸,射四寸,厚寸,是謂內鎮,宗后守之。駔琮七寸,鼻寸有半寸,天子以為權。兩圭五寸有邸,以祀地,以旅四望。瑑琮八寸,諸侯以享夫人。案十有二寸,棗栗十有二列,諸侯純九,大夫純五,夫人以勞諸侯。璋邸射素功,以祀山川,以致稍餼。

    ω人闕。

    雕人闕。

    磬氏為磬,倨句一矩有半,其博為一,股為二,鼓為三。參分其鼓博,去一以為鼓博。參分其鼓博,以其一為之厚。已上,則摩其旁;已下,則摩其耑。

    矢人為矢,鍭矢,參分。茀矢,參分一在前,二在后。兵矢、田矢,五分二在前,三在后。殺矢,七分三在前,四在后。參分其長,而殺其一。五分其長,而羽其一。以其笴厚為之羽深。水之,以辨其陰陽,夾其陰陽,以設其比。夾其比,以設其羽。參分其羽,以設其刃,則雖有疾風,亦弗之能憚矣。刃長寸圍寸,鋌十之,重三垸。前弱則俯,后弱則翔,中弱則紆,中強則揚。羽豐則遲,羽殺則趮。是故夾而搖之,以眡其豐殺之節也。橈之,以眡其鴻殺之稱也。凡相笴,欲生而摶。同摶,欲重;同重,節欲疏;同疏,欲?。

    陶人為■,實二鬴,厚半寸,唇寸。盆實二鬴,厚半寸,唇寸。甑實二鬴,厚半寸,唇寸,七穿。鬲實五觳,厚半寸,唇寸。庾,實二觳,厚半寸,唇寸。

    瓬人為簋,實一觳,崇尺,厚半寸,唇寸。豆實三而成觳,崇尺。凡陶瓬之事,髻墾薜暴不入市。器中膊,豆中縣,膊崇四尺,方四寸。

    梓人為筍虡。天下之大獸五:脂者、膏者、臝者、羽者、鱗者。宗廟之事,脂者膏者以為牲,臝者、羽者、鱗者以為筍虡,外骨、內骨,卻行、紆行、以脰鳴者、以注鳴者、以旁鳴者、以翼鳴者、以股鳴者、以胸鳴者,謂之小蟲之屬,以為雕琢。厚唇弇口,出目短耳,大胸燿后,大體短脰,若是者謂之臝屬。恒有力而不能走,其聲大而宏。有力而不能走,則于任重宜;大聲而宏,則于鐘宜。若是者以為鐘虛,是故擊其所縣,而由其虛鳴。銳喙決吻,數目顅脰,小體騫腹,若是者謂之羽屬。恒無力而輕,其聲清陽而遠聞。無力而輕,則于任輕宜;其聲清陽而遠聞,則于磬宜若是者以為磬虛,故擊其所縣而由其虛鳴。小首而長,摶身而鴻,若是者謂之鱗屬,以為筍。凡攫閷援{筴口}之類,必深其爪,出其目,作其鱗之而。深其爪,出其目,作其鱗之而,則于眡必撥爾而怒。茍撥爾而怒,則于任重宜,且其匪色必似鳴矣。爪不深,目不出,鱗之而不作,則必穨爾如委矣,茍穨爾如委,則加任焉,則必如將廢措,其匪色必似不鳴矣。

    梓人為飲器,勺一升,爵一升,觚三升。獻以爵而酬以觚。一獻而三酬,則一豆矣;食一豆肉,飲一豆酒,中人之食也。凡試梓飲器,鄉衡而實不盡,梓師罪之。

    梓人為侯,廣與崇方。參分其廣,而鵠居一焉。上兩個,與其身三;下兩個,半之。上綱與下綱出舌尋,縜寸焉。張皮侯而棲鵠,則春以功;張五采之侯,則遠國屬;張獸侯,則王以息燕。祭侯之禮,以酒脯醢,其辭曰:“惟若寧侯,毋或若女不寧侯,不屬于王所。故抗而射女,強飲強食,詒女曾孫諸侯百福。”知

    廬人為廬器,戈柲六尺有六寸,殳長尋有四尺,車戟常,酋矛常有四尺,夷矛三尋。凡兵無過三其身,過三其身,弗能用也,而無已,又以害人。故攻國之兵欲短,守國之兵欲長。攻國之人眾,行地遠,食飲饑,且涉山林之阻,是故兵欲短;守國人之寡,食飲飽,行地不遠,且不涉山謂林之阻,是故兵欲長。凡兵,句兵欲無彈,刺兵欲無蜎。是故句兵椑,刺兵摶。■兵同強,舉圍欲細,細則校。刺兵同強,舉圍欲重,重欲傅人,傅人則密,是故侵之。凡為殳,五分其長,以其一為之被,而圍之。參分其圍,去一以為晉圍。五分其晉圍,去一以為首圍。凡為酋矛,參分其長,二在前,一在后,而圍之。五分其圍,去一以為晉圍。參分其晉圍,去一以為刺圍。凡試廬事,置而搖之,以眡其蜎也;炙諸墻,以眡其橈之均也;橫而搖之以眡其勁也。六建既備,車不反覆,謂之國工。

    匠人建國,水地以縣,置槷以縣,眡以景,為規,識日出之景與日入之景,晝參諸日中之景,夜考之極星,以正朝夕。

    匠人營國,方九里,旁三門。國中九經九緯,經涂九軌,左祖右社,面朝后市,市朝一夫。夏后氏世室,堂修二七,廣四修一,五室,三四步,四三尺,九階,四旁兩夾{穴怱},白盛,門堂三之二,室三之一。殷人重屋,堂修七尋,堂崇三尺,四阿重屋。周人明堂,度九尺之筵,東西九筵,南北七筵,堂崇一筵,五室,凡室二筵。室中度以幾,堂上度以筵,宮中度以尋,野度以步,涂度以軌,廟門容大扃七個,闈門容小扃三個,路門不容乘車之五個,應門二徹三個。內有九室,九嬪居之。外有九室,九卿朝焉。九分其國,以為九分,九卿治之。王宮門阿之制五雉,宮隅之制七雉,城隅之制九雉,經涂九軌,環涂七軌,野涂五軌。門阿之制,以為都城之制。宮隅之制,以為諸侯之城制。環涂以為諸侯經涂,野涂以為都經涂。

    匠人為溝洫,耜廣五寸,二耜為耦一耦之伐,廣尺深尺,謂之■;田首倍之,廣二尺,深二尺,謂之遂九夫為井,井間廣四尺,深四尺,謂之溝方十里為成,成間廣八尺,深八尺,謂之洫;方百里為同,同間廣二尋,深二仞,謂之澮。專達于川,各載其名。凡天下之地埶,兩山之間,必有川焉,大川之上,必有涂焉。凡溝逆地阞謂之不行。水屬不理孫,謂之不行。梢溝三十里,而廣倍。凡行奠水,磬折以參伍。欲為淵,購句于矩。凡溝必因水埶,防必因地埶。善溝者。水漱之;善防者,水淫之。凡為防,廣與崇方,其閷參分去一,大防外閷,凡溝防,必一日先深之以為式,里為式,然后可以傅眾力。凡任索約,大汲其版,謂之無任。茸屋參分,瓦屋四分,囷、窌、倉、城,逆墻六分,堂涂十有二分,竇,其崇三尺,墻厚三尺,崇三之。

    車人之事,半矩謂之宣,一宣有半謂之欘,一欘有半謂之柯,一柯有半謂之磬折。

    車人為耒,庛尺有一寸,中直者三尺有三寸,上句者二尺有二寸。自其庛,緣其外,以至于首,以弦其內六尺有六寸,與步相中也。堅地欲直庛,柔地欲句庛,直庛則利推,句庛,則利發。倨句磬折,謂之中地。

    車人為車,柯長三尺,博三寸,厚一寸有半,五分其長,以其一為之首。轂長半柯,其圍一柯有半。輻長一柯有半,其博三寸,厚三之一。渠三柯者三,行澤者欲短轂,行山者欲長轂。短轂則利,長轂則安。行澤者反輮,行山者仄輮,反輮則易,仄輮則完。六分其輪崇,以其一為之牙圍。柏車轂長一柯,其圍二柯,其輻一柯,其渠二柯者三。五分其輪崇,以其一為之牙圍,大車崇三柯,綆寸,牝服二柯有參分柯之二。羊車二柯有參分柯之一,柏車二柯。凡為轅,三其輪崇,參分其長,二在前,一在后,以鑿其鉤,徹廣六尺,鬲長六尺。

    弓人為弓,取六材必以其時,六材既聚,巧者和之。干也者,以為遠也;角也者,以為疾也;筋也者,以為深也;膠也者,以為和也;絲也者,以為固也;漆也者,以為受霜露也。凡取干之道七:柘為上,檍次之,檿桑次之,橘次之,木瓜次之,荊次之,竹為下。凡相干,欲赤黑而陽聲,赤黑則鄉心,陽聲則遠根。凡析干,射遠者用埶,射深者用直。居干之道,菑?不迆,則弓不發。凡相角,秋閷者厚,春閷薄,稚牛之角直而澤,老牛之角紾而昔。疢疾險中,瘠牛之角無澤。角欲青白而豐末,夫角之本,蹙于[A103]而休于氣,是故柔。柔故欲其埶也;白也者,埶之征也。夫角之中,恒當弓之畏,畏也者必橈。橈,故欲其堅也;青也者,堅之征也。夫角之末;遠于[A103]而不休于氣,是故脃。脃故欲其柔也;豐末也者,柔之征也。角長二尺有五寸,三色不失理,謂之牛戴牛。凡相膠,欲朱色而昔,昔也深,深瑕而澤,紾而摶廉。鹿膠青白,馬膠赤白,牛膠火赤,鼠膠黑,魚膠餌,犀膠黃。凡昵之類不能方。凡相筋,欲小簡而長,大結而澤,小簡而長。大結而澤,則其為獸必剽,以為弓,則豈異于其獸,筋欲敝之敝,漆欲測,絲欲沈,得此主材之全,然后可以為良。凡為弓,冬析干而春液角,夏治筋,秋合三材,寒奠體,冰析灂。冬析干則易,春液角則合,夏治筋則不煩,秋合三材則合,寒奠體則張不流,冰析灂則審環,春被弦則一年之事。析干必倫,析角無邪,斫目必荼。斫目不荼,則及其大修也,筋代之受病。夫目也者必強,強者在內而摩其筋,夫筋之所由幨,恒由此作,故角三液而干再液。厚其帤,則木堅;薄其帤,則需,是故厚其液而節其帤,約之。不皆約,疏數必侔,斫摯必中,膠之必均。斫摯不中,膠之不均,則及其大修也,角代之受病,夫懷膠于內而摩其角,夫角之所由挫,恒由此作。凡居角,長者以次需,恒角而短,是謂逆橈,引之則縱,釋之則不校。恒角而達,譬如終紲,非弓之利也。今夫茭解中有變焉,故挍;于挺臂中有柎焉,故剽。恒角而達,引如終紲,非弓之利也。撟干欲孰于火而無贏,撟角欲孰于火而無燂,引筋欲盡絕無傷其力,鬻膠欲孰而水火相得,然則居旱亦不動,居濕亦不動。茍有賤工,必因角干之濕以為之柔,善者在外,動者在內。雖善于外,必動于內,雖善亦弗可以為良矣。凡為弓,方其峻,而高其柎,長其畏,而薄其敝,宛之無已。應下柎之弓,末應將興。為柎而發,必動于閷,弓而羽閷,末應將發。弓有六材焉,維干強之。張如流水。維體防之,引之中參。維角{?足}之,欲宛而無負弦,引之如環,釋之無失體。如環,材美,工巧,為之時,謂之參均。角不勝干,干不勝筋,謂之參均。量其力,有三均,均者三,謂之九和。九和之弓,角與干權,筋三侔,膠三鋝,絲三邸,漆三斞。上工以有余,下工以不足。為天子之弓,合九而成規。為諸侯之弓,合七而成規。大夫之弓,合五而成規。士之弓,合三而成規。弓長六尺有六寸,謂之上制,上士服之;弓長六尺有三寸,謂之中制,中士服之;弓長六尺,謂之下制,下士服之。凡為弓,各因其君之躬,志盧血氣,豐肉而短,寬緩以荼。若是者為之危弓,危弓為之安矢,骨直以立,忿埶以奔。若是者為之安弓,安弓為之危矢,其人安,其弓安,其矢安,則莫能以速中,且不深。其人危,其弓危,其矢危,則莫能以愿中。往體多,來體寡,謂之夾臾之屬,利射侯與弋。往體寡,來體多,謂之王弓之屬,利射革與質。往體來體若一,謂之唐弓之屬,利射深。大和無灂,其次筋角皆有灂而深,其次有灂而疏,其次角無灂。合灂若背手文。角環灂,牛筋賁灂,麋筋斥蠖灂。和弓毄摩,覆之而角至,謂之句弓。覆之而干至,謂之侯弓。覆之而筋至,謂之深弓。

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